Thursday, August 27, 2020
Utilizing Ethos In Designing Of Websites - Essay Example The site for an undertaking the board instrument, Basecamp utilizes Ethos to interest its clients by demonstrating its validity. The site shows an image of two men conversing with one another. One man asks the other, Ã¢â¬Å"How did you complete that venture without losing your mind?Ã¢â¬ The subsequent man Answers, Ã¢â¬Å"BASECAMP, we love it.Ã¢â¬ The appropriate response from the subsequent man proofs that the site is believable and dependable in venture the board. There is likewise the strong sentence on the site that shows that last year alone, the site helped more than 285,000 organizations complete in excess of 2 million undertakings. While exploring through the site one understands that Basecamp showcasing site constructs validity for their items and administrations by posting conspicuous clients that rely upon the organization to complete their undertakings. The strategy bids to new clients who will trust and accept that the organization will likewise give them great items and administrations. The site underlines and intense explanations, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"Millions of peopleÃ¢â¬ use Basecamp. A sign of a solid and reliable client base encourages the site to assemble believability among others particularly new customers. The site additionally shows that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s programming for doing extend the board can work on an assortment of working frameworks both on PCs and cell phones. Clients will hence, comprehend that the data is valid and dependable. The site keeps on speaking to clients by putting recordings of significant clients clarifying what they like about Basecamp. Obviously the Basecamp advert ising site advances to ethos.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
IKEA is a globally known home outfitting retailer. It has developed quick since it was established in 1943. Today it is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest furniture retailer, perceived for its Scandinavian style and the low estimated excellent furniture things. The greater part of IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢S furniture is level pack. This permits a decrease in expenses and bundling. IKEA has around 9500 items, including home furnishings and frill. The items are accessible in all IKEA stores and clients can arrange them also online through IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢S site. There are around 140 IKEA stores on the planet in 30 distinct nations. IKEA stores incorporate eateries and cafÃ£ ©Ã¢â¬â¢s serving average Swedish food. They likewise have little food shops selling Swedish goods, everything from the popular meatballs to stick. 2. Investigation of current circumstance Current crucial: IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢S mission is to offer a wide scope of home outfitting things of good structure and capacity, phenomenal quality and sturdiness, at costs so low that most of individuals can bear to get them. They mean to draw in clients who are searching for quality items at sensible costs, however who are eager to gather their furniture themselves and take an interest in a self-administration culture. The run of the mill target clients are youthful families with a low to center low salary. Ã¢â¬ Goals: Their ongoing objectives is that every single new store will be worked to a confirmed green structure standard and sell increasingly natural merchandise. What's more, to urge their clients to make a trip with open vehicle to visit their store. They need to be increasingly perceived as an eco-accommodating business. Techniques: The premise of IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢S technique is a blend of enhance their own particular structures, mass created segments and a devoted provider organize all equipped towards serving cost cognizant clients while as yet keeping up a to elevated requirement of products and workmanship. They structure their own furnishings and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a self-administration, that is a major piece of their system. They likewise have a great deal of offices to offer. For example they offer paper and pencils, PCs so you can look certain things into, they have a play area for youngsters and a cafÃ© with tasty and payable food. Since IKEA was established it generally had worry for individuals and nature. The IKEA vision is Ã¢â¬Å"to make a superior regular day to day existence for some peopleÃ¢â¬ . IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢S worry for individuals and nature urges it to utilize both crude materials and vitality. This minimizes expenses and encourages the organization to arrive at its green targets and have a general positive effect on the earth. 4 3. Inside condition - Strengths: Qualities could incorporate a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s master showcasing mastery or its area. They are any part of the business that enhances its item or administration. IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢S qualities include: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an overall brand which pulls in a ton of buyer gatherings, they additionally offer a similar quality and range in their stores. its vision Ã¢â¬Ëto make a superior regular day to day existence for some peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ A solid idea dependent on offering a wide scope of very much structured, useful item at low costs. A positive Human Resource Management approach towards its staff, which prompts an uplifting demeanor among the staff and expanded execution for the organization. This fulfills the staff with their employments. The staff has an equivalent treatment, regardless of which foundation they have. This causes them to adjust to the purchasers in various nations en inside various societies. They adjust rapidly to change. They utilize the most recent innovation, for example, IKEA IT (data innovation), this gives IKEA all its framework necessities, for example, regular business arrangements, design, foundation, administration and backing. For example, KPI (Key execution markers) it causes IKEA to gauge the advancement of its vision and long haul objectives by setting targets and checking progress towards it. Naturally neighborly strategy. Volume duties IKEA has confidence in making long haul organizations with its providers so as to accomplish this. By focusing on purchasing enormous volumes over various years IKEA can arrange lower costs. This additionally benefits the providers since they appreciate the more noteworthy security of having ensured orders. Economies of scale for example, mass purchasing at less expensive unit costs. Great showcasing. Shortcomings: IKEA needs to recognize its shortcomings so as to improve and oversee them. This can assume a key job in helping it to set targets and grow new procedures. The size and size of its overall business. This could makes it hard to control all the stores, the staff and the gauges. The requirement for minimal effort items. This should be adjusted against creating great quality. That is difficult to do, once in a while they do have low quality. IKEA likewise should be not the same as contenders. IKEA needs to keep great correspondence with its customers and different partners about its natural exercises. The size of the business makes this a troublesome assignment. 5 4. Outer condition: Ã¢â¬ Opportunities: A business utilizes its qualities to make the most of the chances. a developing interest for greener items a developing interest for low evaluated items. Low economy makes low estimated furniture much additionally engaging. interest for decreased water use and lower carbon impressions Ã¢â¬ Threats PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 powers model: 6 Ã¢â" Threat of purchasers developing dealing power: Ã¢â¬ there is a little force in view of the current low value choices. Ã¢â¬ IKEA guarantee that their clients in all perspectives will be fulfilled for quality administration they give Ã¢â¬ Focused their advertising approach on requests and needs of the purchaser. Ã¢â¬ IKEA utilizes their corporate obligation as a decent open picture to their clients. Ã¢â¬ IKEA family card as a participation. Ã¢â" Threat of providers developing haggling power: Ã¢â¬ Because of the low-evaluating, IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s net revenue likewise influences the costs in crude materials than by costs in labor. Ã¢â¬ IKEA has a wide system of 1300 providers. They cautiously select the producer of its items. The organization has own creation production lines and planners which makes it less subject to other people. Ã¢â¬ Bargaining intensity of provider could be danger for the benefit of the organization. Ã¢â" Threat of substitute items or administrations: Ã¢â¬ There is no particular item that can fill in for the furnishings however IKEA at any rate, need to stay aware of the most recent patterns, to abstain from getting unpopular. Ã¢â¬ Problems looked because of dispersion channels. Ã¢â" Rivalry among existing firms: Ã¢â¬ The IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s furniture competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ offers various styles and usefulness Ã¢â¬ IKEA is the best in conveying the total bundle for the clients that reflect in frail contentions. Ã¢â¬ There will consistently be substitutes for furnitureÃ¢â¬â¢s yet IKEA rivals cost and there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t rivals in a similar value run. Ã¢â" Threat of new Entrants: Ã¢â¬ IKEA stores don't arrive at numerous modest communities and this is an open door for the new contenders to move into little and moderate size urban areas with littler stores and less determination. In any case, not simpler in city in light of the fact that new participants need to set up a huge flexibly chain and make a one of a kind brand name. Ã¢â¬ The furniture showcase is as of now exceptionally serious, the danger of new contestants isn't very high. 7 5. End. IKEA is a notable worldwide brand with many stores over the world. So as to improve execution, it must survey its outside and serious condition. This will uncover the key open doors it can exploit and the dangers it must arrangement with. IKEA reacts to both inside and outer issues in a proactive and dynamic way by utilizing its qualities and decreasing its shortcomings. Through this, IKEA can create the solid development it needs to hold a solid character in the market. 6. SWOT-investigation Inside Environment SWOT Analysis Outer Environment Quality Openings Ã¢â" ¦Adapt rapidly Ã¢â" ¦Worldwide brand Ã¢â" ¦ Low cost Ã¢â¬ high caliber Ã¢â" ¦ Positive Human Resource Management Ã¢â" ¦ Environmentally cordial approach Ã¢â" ¦ Good showcasing Ã¢â" ¦ A developing interest for greener items Ã¢â" ¦ A developing interest for low evaluated items. Ã¢â" ¦Low economy makes low evaluated furniture much all the more engaging. Ã¢â" ¦ Demand for diminished water use and lower carbon impressions Weaknesses Dangers Ã¢â" ¦ Low correspondence of ecological exercises Ã¢â" ¦ The size of their overall business Ã¢â" ¦ The requirement for minimal effort items Ã¢â" ¦ The IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s furniture contenders Ã¢â" ¦ New patterns Ã¢â" ¦ IKEA family card Ã¢â" ¦ Bargaining intensity of provider 8 Foreword This appraisal is about the organization IKEA. I will talk about a few issues including a presentation of the organization, an investigation of the present circumstance inside the interior (Strengths and Weaknesses) and outside condition (Opportunities and dangers) . The treats are portrayed in PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 powers model. The appropriate responses of my examination can be found in the end and SWOT investigation. 3 List: Page numbers 1. Introduction4 2. Examination of current situation4 3. Inner environment5 4. Outside Environment6,7 5. Conclusion8 6. Swot-Analyses8 7. Bibliography9 2 7. Catalog Ã¢â" Continuing Case by Alan Hogarth Ã¢â" http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/swot-examination and-maintainable business-arranging/swot-analysis.html#axzz2eJ2NvcnR Ã¢â" http://www.slideshare.net/FenellaAndrade/ikea-9167089 Ã¢â" http://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com/swot-examinations/swot-analysis.html Ã¢â" http://explore methodology.net/doormen five-powers examination/ 9 IKEA
Friday, August 21, 2020
How to Write a Strong and Valuable thesis EssayEvery college student knows that the thesis essay is a significant part of their education. This is the essay that they write to describe and present a specific concept or idea that has been set forth in their course outline. Theses are a key part of the academic writing process because they are the most important part of the entire semester and the completion of a thesis often determines whether or not the student is allowed to graduate on time.When you start the first year of college, it is common for your instructor to ask you to write a thesis to better define the topics that you will be covering throughout the course. At this point, the assignment for you is to come up with a title for your thesis, as well as a conclusion that will give your instructor the appropriate material for discussion when it comes time to complete the final grade.While there are many places that you can get ideas for your thesis, this is just a very simplifi ed look at how a thesis can be defined. To better understand this term, it is best to think of the thesis as being like a character in a story. For example, if you were writing a novel, you would most likely have a central character, a conflict, an outcome, and maybe a resolution.There are also two major methods that can be used to define a subject matter that can be related to a particular topic. The first way that this happens is through the use of a combination of traditional and academic thinking. When this method is employed, the thesis is broken down into three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion.The introduction serves as the introduction to the entire thesis and it usually gives a summary of the major ideas presented in the thesis. If you want to go through this process, you would follow this section with a brief history of the topic, a summary of the book or research that will support your argument, and a statement of purpose.The body of the thesis will also incl ude a series of sub-topics that will be organized to go into a specific location on the body of the paper. If your thesis is about the American empire, the body will cover subjects such as World War II, Roosevelt's presidency, the rise of modern media, and more.Sub-topics that are included in the body of the thesis will take you from the world war, through World War II, until modern times. All of these topics are valuable and can be the starting point for a new and exciting direction for your life.The thesis statement is the conclusion of the thesis and it is most likely the last paragraph that you will write for the entire project. You will most likely utilize this paragraph to identify yourself as a writer, as well as to explain why you wrote the thesis. It is also a good place to introduce the theme for the remainder of the paper, as well as to wrap up all of the body's information in a logical and concise manner.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Literacy In past years, literacy was an issues in some countries. In past years, Illiteracy was a big issue to some countries like Pakistan, Ghana Ethiopia, South Africa and other places in Africa. Over the past years, the government of these countries focused on education. The levels of literacy in these countries was too high and there were causes of negative impact toward education. For instance, literacy rate of girls in Pakistan and family were the negative impact. Literacy rates for both gender was too high in Ghana, Ethiopia and South Africa and the negative impact was poverty. The government want to reduce literacy by doing many things. For example, the high rate of low enrollment for girls in Pakistan, In South Africa thereÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some families wanted their girl to work at home or find employment family forced their girls to drop out. (Latif Amna.) In addition, in Ghana money was the most negative impact towards the high literacy rate. Ghana was poor country in past years, so, the Government were trying to do the past to improve education. One of the problems was the low salary of teachers and this all because of the money. (Blunch, Niels-Hugo) Children in South Africa were faced with many difficult things in their lives. Years ago in South Africa teacher teach the student in a library rather than schools. In 1994, most of the students did not go to the school, students just go to the library to study and workshop with their teachers during the literacy project. Children in elementary schools drop out because family pressure. Some families began to send their children to enroll in drama schools rather than general schools because of low fee. Also, some students said we shall now focus on the drama workshops because they feel that drama schools worth it, and the tuition of the drama schools were not that expensive. The article indicated some good reasons to enroll in a drama school were the low fee and children were learning from the sc hool. Some people indicated that drama workshops were the solution to the linking of literacy. South Africa s young children faced many emotional problems, and there were a lot of things that increased literacy in South Africa such as, the poverty, so
Friday, May 15, 2020
An immigrant is a person who leaves one country to settle permanently in another country or region to which one is not native. Coming from a whole different lifestyle and culture, those who immigrate into the U.S. are hit with overwhelming changes. Although citizenship has its advantages, many immigrants have too much pride or love for their country that they choose to stay immigrants rather than become fully documented citizens. It is important to understand how they are viewed differently so people can work towards citizenship. Citizens and immigrants differ mainly in the resources they are provided with, such as opportunities, work ethic, and education. One way citizens and immigrants differ is in the opportunities provided for them. For example, citizens obtain the right to vote in United States federal and local elections, can hold jobs in government, and serve on juries. United States citizens can also leave and re-enter the U.S. at any time without requiring a re-entry permit. There are also no restrictions to how long they can remain outside of the country. On the other hand, immigrants are denied any of those rights and can only travel for a certain amount of time or it is considered abandonment of residency and are denied re-entry into the U.S. Bharati Mukherjee states in her article Ã¢â¬Å"Two Ways to belong in AmericaÃ¢â¬ about adapting to a conventional American culture and its effects on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s identity, Ã¢â¬Å"Having my green card meant I could visit any place in theShow MoreRelatedImmigrants And The United States Essay1215 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImmigrants have been migrating to the Unites States for years. Many people in the United States have different opinions on immigrants: some are negative and some are positive. Some Americans assume that immigrants are here to destroy the United States, but immigrants are here for many purposes: to support their families, succeed in their future, or to escape violence occurring in their home countries. Many Americans think that once an immigrant has settled in the United States that he or she willRead MoreImmigrants Of The United States1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesImmigrants in the United States Are immigrants a burden to the United States? Or do they benefit society? Many people might say that immigrants donÃ¢â¬â¢t help the country and that they should be deported back to their respective countries. Keeping the status of undocumented immigrants as aliens costs the government a lot of money and the broken solution of deporting immigrants costs even more. Immigrants stimulate the growth of the economy and immigrants give the country so much and no one gives themRead MoreThe Immigrants Of The United States920 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe 1890 s when immigrants needed money to enter the United States. Your huddle masses yearning to breathe free, huddle masses come with a quota and whichever nationality was in favor at the time. Send these the homeless, tempest, tossed to me (The New Colossus, Emma Lazarus 1883) just as long as you weren t Chinese or Japanese. In a thirty year span between 1870 and 1900 the United States saw twelve million immigrants pass through her golden doors. 70% of these immigrants were English, IrishRead MoreImmigrants And The United States921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImmigrants. what is considered to be an immigrant to the united states? It s a person that crosses the border illegally and that isn t allowed to be part of the unites states unless they have permission to be here with a Visa. Society has given these people so many racial labels that s beyond hurtful names they re referred as wetbacks, Alien, and illegally immigrant, but what s the right way to call these people without referring to them with all these racial characteristic and names that societyRead MoreImmigrants in the United States2135 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Day in and day out many immigrants enter the United States of America in search of greener pastures. This greener pasture includes higher educational prospects and lucrative jobs. However, life usually does not turn out as many of them usually anticipate. The expectation they usually have prior to their entry to the United States is partly due to the all rosary and nice things they hear about America. They hear such nice things from the media and also from diasporaÃ¢â¬â¢s who return from America to theirRead MoreChinese Immigrants And The United States928 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction to Chinese Americans The beginning of Chinese immigration to the United States first started in the 19th century, the political unrest and economic pressures in China and the Gold Rush era in California prompted thousands of Chinese immigrants to migrate to the United States to search for temporary work, and to seek for the dreams of gold in the 1850s. Many of them arrived in America hoping to acquired wealth to send money back to support their families and hoping to return back toRead MoreIllegal Immigrants And The United States Essay1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIllegal immigrants have been present in every country ever since governments have been established. Even in the time when Christopher Columbus first set foot on North America, there were already Natives living on the continent. The British immigrants that first established the Thirteen Colonies brought disease and famine with them. Many Natives died from the diseases that the British brought with them. If there had been a federal government in pl ace, the settlers would have been considered illegalRead MoreLatino Immigrants And The United States Essay1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLatino immigrants are not often accepted by U.S. citizens and politicians because they are viewed as a threat. The threatening feeling of Latinos stems from the fact that the over fifty million Latinos in the United States make up about 17% of the population, ultimately having a significant influence on the economy. Although Latino immigrants were once openly invited into the United States, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society they are a common target of immigration laws and U.S. politicians, which causes feelingsRead MoreUndocumented Immigrants And The United States Essay973 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesundocumented immigrants to cross the united states do with the poverty in the country, high level of education in the united states, and the better opportunity of jobs. Many immigrants decide to emigrate from their country of birth to seek a new opportunity for all the family, but analyze the information is not only one culture a lot of different cultures immigrant to have a better life in the united states. Undocumented immigration is a big issue in the united states because many immigrants come to liveRead MoreIllegal Immigrants And The United States1248 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa half million unauthorized immigrants in the United States in 2014. The population has remained stable for five years, and currently makes up three and half percent of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s population. In the United States Labor Force, there were eight million unauthorized immigrants either working or looking for work in 2014. Is it ethical to employ illegal immigrants? According to the Pew Research Center, Currently, Ã¢â¬Å"49% of US citizens agree with the statement Ã¢â¬Å"immigrants today strengthen the country
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Many of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s experience colour the way we look at ourselves and society in which we live. The novel Montana 1948 by Larry Watson is indeed all about the tragic event of David HaydenÃ¢â¬â¢s twelfth summer, which irrevocably changed him. These events help us understand the idea of coming of age and how childhood experiences change us and affect how we define ourselves as adults. Montana 1948 is set in a small country town in Mercer County, Montana called Bentrock. The story is about a young boy David Hayden who couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be happier.Ã¢Å"â But one afternoon when David eavesdropped on his parents, his life changed forever. He tells us in the prologue that, Ã¢â¬Å" From the summer of my twelfth year I carry a series of images more vivid and lasting than anyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This scene epitomises this style of writing and the frustrations that David feels for the entirety of the text. As at the beginning David was a young boy who is like any other kid in 1948. He likes to play outside with his friends, ride horses, he preferred the wilderness of the country compared to the rules enforced by people in town. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a care in the world as any twelve year old should. He thought that he had more status with his parents than he did but finds out that his Uncle molested Indian girls and possibly his beloved Marie. He wanted to be included in the events that was going on around him. He wanted to know what the adults were talking about. Every single detail. I think that kids like David want to know what is happening and I think its quite a bad idea because they pick up things they probably shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t and as they grow older they find out that it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually a good idea. So David eavesdrops on the conversation and he wants to know whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening. He wants to have adult status within his parents But the one time he did listen to what his parents were talking about even though he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t supposed to know changed him for ever. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"I would never have heard the conversation between my father and mother, and perhaps I would have lived out my life with an illusion about my about my family and perhaps.Ã¢â¬ This i s true because the conversation between Gail and Wesley wasShow MoreRelatedLight and Silence to Reinforce Truth and Justice in Larry Watsons Montana 19481037 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLarry Watson in Ã¢â¬Å"Montana 1948Ã¢â¬ uses the motif of light and silence in many ways to reinforce ideas about truth and injustice. He illustrates the injustice in Bentrock, a town barely inside the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s border, through the motif of light/dark. Watson then demonstrates to the reader the occurrence of something wrong through the motif of silence. In certain places, the motif of light assists the motif of silence to emphasize the significance of the event. Watson further explores the themes of racismRead MoreEssay on Montana 1948829 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMontana 1948 is about the loss of innocence and the painful gain of wisdom. Discuss. Montana 1948 a series of tragic events were to have a major impact on David and his parents. DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s shocking revelations lead to his painful gaining of wisdom. When DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s story begins, his life is a stable and happy one, and his family are close and loving. It is this stability and respect though, in which the much loved and admired Frank is held by both the townspeople and David, that make the events whichRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesConflict 410 SSS Software Management Problems 410 Exercises for Selecting an Appropriate Conflict Management Strategy BradleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Barn 419 Avocado Computers 419 Phelps, Inc. 420 Exercises for Resolving Interpersonal Disputes 420 Freida Mae Jones 421 Can Larry Fit In? 423 Meeting at Hartford Manufacturing Company 424 SKILL APPLICATION 431 Activities for Improving Managing Conflict Skills Suggested Assignments 431 Application Plan and Evaluation 432 390 418 431 SCORING KEYS AND COMPARISON DATA
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Impact of Sovereign Wealth Funds. Answer: Introduction The regulatory system, ethical dilemma, taxation arrangement, markets, and governance facets are used in this compare-contrast essay to compare and contrast the two sovereign wealth funds including Norges Bank Investment Management and Qatar Investment Authority. Regarding the regulatory system, the paper examines the regulators of these two funds and how they funds are regulated. The ethical dilemmas for these funds deals with what they invest in and what they avoid. Taxation arrangement looks at how the two funds are taxed and note whether there are similarities or difference in the corporation in the country and whether they have special provisions. Regarding markets, the article examines what market these funds are investing in and the associated equity types. Finally, governance delves into both companies in terms of their investors, and the industry itself. Regulatory System Norges Bank Investment Management has created the corporate Governance Advisory Board to strengthen its long-term active ownership. The Board assist in the board nomination practices regarding the listed equity investment of the sovereign funds. The board also serve as the body on active ownership as well as regularly assess the Norges Bank Investment Managements ownership activities relative to the optimal practices (Truman 2009). The board gives advice to the listed companies that undergo strategy shifts, capital restructuring and takeovers. The Norwegian Ministry of Finance is responsible for managing the fund. It has also delegated responsibility for the operational management of the Norges Bank Investment Managements international assets to Norges Bank Investment Management which nests within the Norwegian Bank. Both the funds are directly managed and controlled through the central bank or the finance ministry to ensure transparency. It has been noted that that the Norways fund is more transparent in its investment criterion and financial accounting the effective regulation of the ministry of finance and central banks. On the other hand, funds regulated by Qatar are among those that regulators ensure they disclose the least information regarding their activities as well as are probably to consider sovereign interests in their activities of investment. The limited disclosure of the SWFs in Qatar makes it complex to determine whether funds are pursuing non-commercial interests thereby creating fear of the SWF activities. In Norway, the Storting has laid out the formal framework for the fund in terms of regulation which is to be done through the Ministry of Finance and the Central Bank in the Government Pension Fund Act. The Ministry of Finance has the overal obligation for the funds regulation (Jen 2007). The Ministry of Finance has also issued the effective guidelines for its regulation in the Management Mandate for the Government Pension Fund Global. The Norges Bank has been mandated and tasked with the regulation of the fund with the Executive Board of the bank being delegated the operational management together with the regulation of the funds to the Norges Bank Investment Management. In Qatar, the Chief Executive Officer of the QIA is responsible for the internal regulation of the fund, management of its affairs as well as the general policy implementation. The CEO is helped by a management team comprising the investment committee and business departments alongside the direct investment in real estate as well as private equity. The investment function is supported by the internal audit, legal, and audit, administration as well as finance department to ensure effectiveness in regulation. The QIA also has a governing Board of Directors as the supreme body with full control and regulation over the QIAs affairs. The Board of Directors discharge of its business and consist of the chairman, a vice chairman and the members. The Board meets regularly to set and review the QIAs strategic policy according to its mandate. The board does not usually engage itself in such decisions linked o day-to-day business but assigns these through Emiri Decision to the CEO and the manage ment. The ownership of the QIA is by the Government of the State of Qatar which has a supervisory role to play despite the fund having an independent legal personality as well as a budget. The founding legislations of the fund has been used to separate the roles and responsibilities among the owner, the governing entity as well as the management for effective regulation (Johnson 2007). The government comes it to regulate through the Ministry of Finance and the Central Bank by ensuring the QIAs mandate of developing, investing as well as managing the state reserve funds alongside other property assigned to it by the Government through the Supreme Council of Economic Affairs and Investment is achieved. The government uses the funds founding legislation that gives QIA the required capacity, powers as well as competencies to act in accomplishing its statutory mandate and achieve its objectives to regulate the fund. Ethical Dilemmas for the Two Sovereign Funds Norges Bank Investment Management can invest solely outside Norway. The mandate requires the Norges Bank Investment Management fund to invest sixty percent of its capital in equities. The mandate also requires that 35-40 percent invest in fixed-income securities and up to five percent invest in real estate. Equity investments are limited to companies which are, or intend to be, listed on the recognized market place. At the present Norges Bank Investment Management is invested in most markets, countries, industries and currencies to cover global growth as well as diversify risk as best as possible. The list of holdings together with the information on all equities, fixed-income instruments as well as properties the fund is invested in is published once a year. Norges Bank Investment Management fund investment is restricted to some companies and courtiers where the fund cannot invest in. The Ministry of Finance has outlined guidelines on responsible investment as well as set up a Council of Ethics that considers whether the investment of the fund in individual companies adhere to these set guidelines. The Council assesses appropriate cases and subsequently makes recommendations to the Norges Bank on the observation and exclusion of companies. The Executive Board of Norge Bank is responsible for managing the fund and, therefore, takes the final decision on whether to follow the recommendations of the Council. The Ministry may as well make a decision that fund should not be invested in fixed-income securities given by some countries like those subject to extensive international sanctions supported by Norway including Syria, North Korea and Iran. On the other hand, the Qatar Investment Authority lacks any mandated limitations on its investment universe. Qatar Investment Authority can invest in both local and foreign marketable, real property, securities, private equity funds and alternative assets. Taxation Arrangement Taxation affects return on investments and can produce risk for the fund and Norges Bank. This policy is crucial in setting out the principles for protecting Norges Bank and Government Pension Fund Global by managing the risk associated with tax associated with the funds unlisted real estate investments and Norges Bank Real Estate Managements operations. This policy entails the management of NBRREMs tax position, and administrative processes linked to tax in the market where we invest and structures relevant to the unlisted real estate investment as operations. The policy helps to manage the tax appropriately and prudently and comply with rules relating to tax and minimization of overpayment of taxes. The unlisted real estate investment are held via corporate holding structures to safeguard Norges Bank and the fund from liability as well as prohibit unnecessary tax costs which may reduce the return or restrict the ability to compete commercially. The Norges Bank Investment Management uses tried and tested structures and follow prudent market prices besides seeking ruling in relation to uncertain tax positions in the countries in and via which the Norges Bank Investment Management invest. It does not use structures that might jeopardize the entire tax position of Norges Bank, the fund or which may negatively affects the tax position of unrelated investment. The NBREM monitors the taxes paid by the Norges Bank Investment Management alongside its compliance with the tax regulations to safeguard the value of the funds unlisted real estate investment as well as safeguard its reputation. Norges Bank Investment Management balances the tax considerations against other business needs as well as manage the interactions between these appropriately. Norges Bank Investment Management uses securities lending and tax as a value-creating activity in the management of the fund. The Norges Bank Investment Management does not lend the benefit of its favorable tax features to the third parties and it improves its tax position by seeking to avoid entering into security lending transaction. The Norges Bank Investment Management uses the reciprocal exemptions to exempt foreign governments as well as their SWFs only where the foreign governments extend a comparable exemption. The reciprocal exemption is achieved either locally or via inclusion in the bilateral double taxation treaties. For example, the Norway and Russia have entered a bilateral tax treaty which contain reciprocal exemptions for interest paid as well to foreign governments, regional as well as local authorities together with their agencies. On the other hand, the Qatar Investment Authority has a significant withholding taxes imposed on the outbound remittances of passive income and they seem to have no special tax preferences for the foreign governments alongside SWFs. The Qatar Investment Authority, therefore, uses the third category which is the most reasoned approach of not to offer any special tax preferences for their SWFs. It uses the same basis to tax charitable organization, and foreign investors (Jen 2009). Qatar has also engaged in agreements for the avoidance of double taxation that permits the non-taxation or tax at a decreased rate of evidence distributed to the stockholders which are resident in Qatar by firms that are resident in other nations. This agreement has an advantage that include the non-taxation or taxation at a lower rate of interest as well as similar payment made to residents of Qatar with the exemption of the interest paid to the State as well as its local authorities and bodies like Qatar Investment Authority. Markets The QIA is SWF of the Qatar Government that specialize in public equity, private equity, fixed income, real estate, and alternative markets as well as startups. The Qatar Investment Authority also makes funds of fund investment across the world. However, QIA does not invest in Qatar energy sector. It also invest in companies that are operating across diversified sectors. The QIA seeks to invest in startups in France. The Qatar Investment Authority has created Qatar Diar Real Estate Investment Company as a podium to handle various essential investment in local and international markets including Oman, Egypt and Syria. The Qatar Investment Authoritys investment in UK include the acquisition of 4 of the largest nursing home chains for approximately five billion USD. Moreover, the Qatar Investment Authority has critical interest in the Canary Wharf Estate in London. The Qatar Investment Authority also owns as well as is currently developing a large prime location retail mall in Kuala Lumpur. The Qatar Investment Authority also directly possess 100% of Qatar National Hotels Company. The Qatar Investment Authority has direct stakes in several Qatari blue chip companies including QNB and Qtel as well as co-invest alongside them in private equity. The Qatar Investment Authoritys private equity further looks after the domestic private equity as well as venture capital initiatives including the Qatar Foundation. The Qatar Investment Authoritys international investments include stakes in the United Kingdom-based 4 Seasons Healthcare, Nordic Exchange OMX, London Stock Exchange Group, Lagardere of France, Singapores Raffles Medical Group and Jordans Housing Bank of Trade and Finance (Do Sovereign and Citizens 2008). The Qatar Investment Authority also sold stake in the London Stock Exchange Group to help buy Frank Russell. On the other hand Norges Bank Investment Management, has invested 60% in equities, 35% in fixed income and 5% in real estate markets. The Norges Bank Investment Management invests in a broad range of countries, companies, and assets to acquire the highest possible return with the moderate risk as outlined by the Ministry of Finance. Some of the largest equity investment include Nestle (CH), Apple (US), Royal Dutch Shell (UK), Alphabet (US), Roche Holding (CH), Novartis (CH) and Microsoft (US). In the real estate management, Norges Bank Investment Management fund is slowly increasing the real estate investment to as much as five percent of its assets via the corresponding reduction in its bond holding. Governance The policy objectives of Sovereign Wealth Funds differ, depending on the wide macro fiscal objectives that they aim at addressing. The organizational structure requires to have a precise distinction of responsibilities as well as authority. Accordingly, a well-defined structure builds a decision making hierarchy which limits risks by making sure the integrity of and effective control over SWF management activities. The Qatar Investment Authority (QIA) is governed by the board of directors and the Qatars State Audit Bureau is responsible for auditing the QIA financial operations. On the other hand, the Norges Bank Investment Management is governed by the Ministry of Finance that owns the fund on behalf of the Norwegians. The Ministry has established the general investment strategy together with rules for the fund in the Management Mandate for the Government Pension Fund Global following the consultation with the Norges Bank and the debate in the Storting. The Norges Bank has been mandated to manage the fund. The Executive Board has also delegated the operational management of the fund to the Norges Bank Investment Management. The governance model of the Norges Bank Investment Management builds on a clear delegation of duties as well as effective system for control and supervision. Storting-the Norwegian parliament has laid a formal framework for fund in the Government Pension Fund Act. The Ministry of Finance enjoys the overall responsibility for the management of the Norges Bank Investment Management fund. The Ministry has issued guidelines for the management of Norges Bank Investment Management in the Management Mandate for the Government Pension Fund Global (Beck and Fidora 2008). Conclusion The paper has offered a comprehensive discussion about the Norges Bank Investment Management and the Qatar Investment Authority using the five facets such as taxation, regulatory system, governance, markets, and ethical dilemmas through a compare-contrast approach. It is clear from the discussion that some similarities and differences exist based on the above mentioned facets. What is clear from the discussion is that the mandate of these two Sovereign Wealth Funds is more or less similar and that the ownership is by the government. It has been shown from the discussion that the regulation and management of these two funds is done by the respective countrys government through the Ministry of Finance and the Central Bank. It also clear that both SWFs use reciprocal tax exemption in their taxation arrangements. References Beck, R. and Fidora, M., 2008. The impact of sovereign wealth funds on global financial markets. Intereconomics, 43(6), pp.349-358. Do Sovereign, W.F.B. and Citizens, R., 2008. Sovereign Wealth Funds. Jen, S., 2007. Sovereign wealth funds. World economics, 8(4), pp.1-7. Jen, S.L., 2009. How big could sovereign wealth funds be by 2015?. Revue d'conomie Financire. Johnson, S., 2007. The rise of sovereign wealth funds. Finance and Development, 44(3), p.56. Truman, E.M., 2009. A blueprint for sovereign wealth fund best practices. Revue d'conomie financire (English ed.), 9(1), pp.429-451.